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CAR 1988: regulation 2 — definitions
In these Regulations, unless the contrary intention
AA means the body called Airservices Australia established by subsection 7 (1) of the Air Services Act 1995.
acrobatic flight means manoeuvres intentionally performed by an aircraft involving an abrupt change in its attitude, an abnormal attitude, or an abnormal variation in speed.
adopted in pursuance of the Convention means adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization in pursuance of Article 37 of the Convention.
aerodrome control service means an air traffic control service for aerodrome traffic.
aerodrome meteorological minima means the minimum heights of cloud base and minimum values of visibility which are determined in pursuance of regulation 257 for the purpose of determining whether an aerodrome may be used for take-off or landing.
aerodrome reference point, in relation to an aerodrome, means the geographical location of the aerodrome:
aerodyne means an aircraft whose support in flight is derived dynamically from the reaction on surfaces in motion relative to the air.
Aeronautical Information Publications or AIP has the meaning given by regulation 4.12 of the Air Services Regulations.
aeronautical mobile radio service means a radio service between aircraft radio stations and land stations and between two or more aircraft radio stations.
aeroplane means a power-driven heavier-than-air aircraft deriving its lift in flight chiefly from aerodynamic reactions on surfaces remaining fixed under given conditions of flight, but does not include a power-assisted sailplane.
aeroplane flight review means a test of the aeronautical skills and aeronautical knowledge relevant to aeroplane flight of the person undertaking the review.
aeroplane pilot licence means:
airborne weather radar system means a radar system installed in an aircraft for the purpose of detecting potentially hazardous weather conditions in the flight path of the aircraft.
aircraft component means:
but does not include any part, equipment or apparatus for an aircraft in respect of which a direction is in force under subregulation (2).aircraft log book means a log book kept for the purposes of subregulation 50A (1).
aircraft maintenance engineer licence means an aircraft maintenance engineer licence in force under regulation 31.
aircraft maintenance record means:
aircraft welding authority means an authority granted under regulation 33D.
air law examination means an examination of a person's knowledge of:
set and conducted by CASA under subregulation 5.41 (3).airline means the operator of a regular public transport service.
airship means a power-driven lighter-than-air aircraft.
airship ground party means a person appointed by the operator of an airship to assist in the arrival and departure of an airship.
airship instructor means a person appointed by CASA under regulation 5.34.
airship proficiency check means a check:
air traffic control instructions means directions given by a person performing duty in air traffic control for an aircraft to conduct its flight in the manner specified in the directions.
air traffic controller licence means a licence granted under regulation 102.
air traffic control service means a service provided for the purpose of:
Note The definition is essentially that in Annex 11, Air Traffic Services, to the Chicago Convention.air transport (aeroplane) pilot means the holder of an air transport pilot (aeroplane) licence.
air transport (helicopter) pilot means the holder of an air transport pilot (helicopter) licence.
air transport pilot licence means:
airworthiness directive means:
altitude means the vertical distance of a level or a point, or an object considered as a point, measured from mean sea level.
approach control service means an air traffic control service for arriving or departing flights of aircraft.
approved means approved by CASA.
approved alternative maintenance record means a record kept for the purposes of subregulation 50B (3) or (4).
approved check radio operator means:
approved system of certification of completion of maintenance means a system of certification of completion of maintenance for which an approval under regulation 42ZG is in force.
approved system of maintenance, in relation to an Australian aircraft, means a system of maintenance for the aircraft in relation to which an approval under regulation 42M is in force.
approved testing officer, for the purposes of a provision in which that expression occurs, means:
(b) for loading cargo on to, or unloading cargo from, aircraft; or
(c) for refuelling, parking or carrying out maintenance on aircraft.
authorised means authorised by CASA or by a person, or a person included in a class of persons, appointed by CASA to give the authority concerned.
authorised flight instructor means a person who:
balloon flight instructor means a person who holds a flight instructor (balloon) rating.
balloon flight review means a test of the aeronautical skills and aeronautical knowledge of the person undertaking the review that are relevant to the safe flight of balloons in aerial work, or charter, operations.
balloon proficiency check means a check:
cargo means things other than passengers carried in aircraft.
CASA flying operations inspector means a person employed by CASA as:
CASA system of certification of completion of maintenance means the system of certification of completion of maintenance set out in Schedule 6.
CASR means the Civil Aviation Safety Regulations 1998.
ceiling means the height above the ground or water of the base of the lowest layer of cloud below twenty thousand feet covering more than one-half of the sky.
centre of gravity, in relation to an aircraft at any time, means the centre of gravity of the aircraft at that time estimated in accordance with the method set out in a direction in force under subregulation 235 (1).
certificate of airworthiness means a certificate of airworthiness issued under regulation 21.176 of CASR.
certificate of approval means a certificate of approval in force under regulation 30.
certificate of type approval means a certificate of type approval continued in force under regulation 313 or a type certificate issued under regulation 21.013A or 21.029 of CASR.
certificate of validation means a certificate issued under regulation 5.27.
channel means the part of a water aerodrome that is navigable and cleared for the safety of aircraft taking-off or landing in a given direction.
check flight engineer means a person to whom the Director has delegated the Authority's power under subregulation 5.41 (4) to conduct a flight engineer flight test.
chief flying instructor means a person:
class A aircraft means an Australian aircraft, other than a balloon, that satisfies either or both of the following paragraphs:
(b) the aircraft is being used, or is to be used, by the holder of an Air Operator's Certificate which authorises the use of that aircraft for the commercial purpose referred to in paragraph 206 (1) (c).
Note Subregulation 2 (2C) sets out how an aircraft is certificated as a transport category aircraft.class B aircraft means an Australian aircraft that is not a class A aircraft.
class of airspace means a class of airspace determined under paragraph 2.04 (1) (b) of the Air Services Regulations.
commercial (aeroplane) pilot means the holder of a commercial pilot (aeroplane) licence.
commercial (airship) pilot means the holder of a commercial pilot (airship) licence.
commercial (balloon) pilot means the holder of a commercial pilot (balloon) licence.
commercial (gyroplane) pilot means the holder of a commercial pilot (gyroplane) licence.
commercial (helicopter) pilot means the holder of a commercial pilot (helicopter) licence.
commercial operations means civil air operations other than private operations.
commercial pilot licence means:
constable has the same meaning as in the Crimes Act 1914.
control area means airspace to which a determination under paragraph 2.04 (1) (d) of the Air Services Regulations applies.
controlled aerodrome means an aerodrome to which a determination under paragraph 2.04 (1) (a) of the Air Services Regulations applies.
controlled airspace means a control area or a control zone.
control zone means airspace to which a determination under paragraph 2.04 (1) (e) of the Air Services Regulations applies.
co-pilot means a pilot serving in any piloting capacity other than the pilot in command.
crew member means a person assigned by an operator for duty on an aircraft during flight time, and any reference to crew has a corresponding meaning.
cross-country flight time means flight time during which the pilot of an aircraft applies a particular method to determine the aircraft's position and course by geometry, topography or radio navigation aids while the aircraft is flying along a route segment.
cross-country training means flight for the purpose of practising the navigation sequences set out in a syllabus.
cruising level, in relation to an aircraft in flight, means the height above ground or water, or above an atmospheric datum, at which the aircraft flies when it is not climbing or descending.
current certificate holder means a person who holds a private pilot certificate (balloons) that is in force.
current flight plan means the flight plan, with any changes brought about by subsequent air traffic control clearances and air traffic control instructions.
daily inspection, in relation to an aircraft, means:
(b) if the aircraft is not maintained in accordance with the CASA maintenance schedule the inspection required to be carried out under:
dangerous lights means any lights which may endanger the safety of aircraft, whether by reason of glare, or by causing confusion with or preventing clear visual reception of aeronautical lights or signals.
design standard means:
elevation means the vertical distance of a point or a level on or affixed to the surface of the earth, measured from mean sea level.
engage in conduct means:
expected approach time means the time at which it is expected that an arriving aircraft will be cleared to commence approach for a landing.
experimental aircraft means an aircraft for which a special certificate of airworthiness is in force under regulation 21.195A of CASR.
FAA means the Federal Aviation Administration of the United States of America.
facilities, in relation to an air route or airway, has the same meaning as in subregulation 1.03 (1) of the Air Services Regulations.
Federal airport has the same meaning as in the Federal Airports Corporation Act 1986.
flight control system, in relation to an aircraft, includes:
(b) the aircraft's lift and drag devices and associated operating mechanisms and control systems; and
(c) the aircraft's trim and artificial feel systems and associated operating mechanisms and control systems; and
(d) the aircraft's flight control lock system and associated operating mechanisms and control systems; and
(e) the aircraft's yaw system and associated operating mechanisms and control systems; and
(f) if the aircraft is a rotorcraft the aircraft's pitch control systems; and
(g) if the aircraft is an airship the aircraft's ballonet system and associated operating mechanisms and control systems.
flight crew member means a licensed crew member charged with duties essential to the operation of an aircraft during flight time, and any reference to flight crew has a corresponding meaning.
flight crew rating means a rating of a kind mentioned in regulation 5.13.
flight engineer means the holder of a flight engineer licence.
flight engineer proficiency check means a check that would be required under regulation 217 if the flight engineer was a member of an operating crew of an operator to which that regulation applies.
flight engineer time means flight time during which a person performs the duties of a flight engineer in an aircraft, whether or not the person performs the duties under supervision.
flight information area means airspace to which a determination under subparagraph 2.04 (1) (c) (i) of the Air Services Regulations applies.
flight information service means a service provided by air traffic control or Flight Service for the purpose of giving advice and information for the safe and efficient conduct of flights.
flight level 290, in relation to a flight of an aircraft, means the height at which the aircraft's altimeter, if it were adjusted to a reading on the subscale of 1013.2 hectopascals, would show a height of 29 000 feet.
flight manual has the meaning given by regulation 54.
flight navigator time means flight time during which a person carries out the duties of a flight navigator.
flight plan means specified information, provided to air traffic control, relative to the intended flight of an aircraft.
flight radiotelephone practical test means a test set by CASA under subregulation 5.41 (5).
Flight Service means flight advisory services provided by AA.
flight service officer licence means a licence granted under regulation 112.
Note For definitions of flight simulator and flight training device, see the CASR Dictionary.flight test means a practical test of a person's aeronautical knowledge and practical flying skill set by CASA.
flight time means:
flying school means a school for which there is an Air Operator's Certificate that authorises the school to conduct flying training.
flying training means any training given during flight time in an aircraft for the purpose of increasing a person's skill in flying the aircraft.
flying training aircraft means an aircraft that is used by a flying school to give flying training.
flying training area, in relation to an aerodrome, means an area that is specified in a flying school's operations manual as the flying training area for the aerodrome.
foreign aircraft means an aircraft registered:
(b) under a joint registration plan or an international registration plan.
general flight time means flight time that is not:
(b) flight time in flying for the purpose of training in an activity for which a flight crew rating is required.
grant, in relation to a licence or certificate, means grant of the licence or certificate, either by way of initial issue or by renewal from time to time.
gross weight, in relation to an aircraft at any time, means the weight of the aircraft, together with the weight of all persons and goods (including fuel) on board the aircraft, at that time, estimated in accordance with the method set out in a direction in force under subregulation 235 (1).
ground radar, in relation to a secondary surveillance radar transponder, means an installation on the ground which:
gyroplane means a heavier-than-air aircraft:
(b) that has a power-driven propulsion system that is independent of the rotors.
gyroplane pilot licence means:
that may endanger the safety of aircraft or aircraft operations.heading means the direction in which the longitudinal axis of an aircraft is pointed, usually expressed in degrees from North (true, magnetic or compass).
heavier-than-air aircraft is the generic term for aircraft deriving their lift in flight chiefly from aerodynamic forces.
helicopter means a heavier-than-air aircraft supported in flight by the reaction of the air on one or more normally power-driven rotors on substantially vertical axes.
helicopter flight review means a test of the aeronautical skills and aeronautical knowledge relevant to helicopter flight of the person undertaking the review.
helicopter pilot licence means:
(b) that is required by:
horizontal plane in relation to an aeroplane, means the plane containing the longitudinal axis and perpendicular to the plane of symmetry of the aeroplane.
hot air airship means an airship given buoyancy by hot air.
ICAO Doc. 9574-AN/934 means Doc. 9574-AN/934 (Manual on Implementation of a 300 m (1 000 ft) Vertical Separation Minimum Between FL 290 and FL 410 Inclusive) approved and published by decision of the Council of the International Civil Aviation Organisation, as in force from time to time.
I.F.R. is the symbol used to designate the Instrument Flight Rules prescribed in Part 12.
I.F.R. flight means a flight conducted in accordance with the Instrument Flight Rules prescribed in Part 12.
I.F.R. operation means an operation conducted in accordance with the Instrument Flight Rules prescribed in Part 12.
I.M.C. is the symbol used to designate meteorological conditions other than those designated by the symbol V.M.C.
instrument flight time means flight time during which a person is flying an aircraft solely by reference to instruments and without external reference points.
instrument ground time means time during which a person practices simulated instrument flight in a synthetic flight trainer that has been approved by CASA under regulation 5.60.
instrument rating means a rating mentioned in paragraph 5.13 (g).
international air service means an air service which passes through the airspace over the territory of more than one country.
international operating agency means an international operating agency referred to in Article 77 of the Convention.
international registration plan means a plan for the registration by an international organisation of aircraft operated, or to be operated, by an international operating agency, being a plan approved by the Council by a determination made in pursuance of Article 77 of the Convention.
International Telecommunications Convention means:
(b) the Radio Regulations annexed to that Convention.
joint registration plan means a plan for joint registration by Contracting States constituting an international operating agency of aircraft operated, or to be operated, by the agency, being a plan approved by the Council by a determination made in pursuance of Article 77 of the Convention.
landing area means the part of the manoeuvring area primarily intended for landing or take-off of aircraft.
landing strip means a rectangular portion of the landing area, specially prepared for the take-off and landing of aircraft in a particular direction.
land station means a radio station, not capable of being moved, which performs a mobile service.
licensed means licensed under these regulations.
lighter-than-air aircraft is the generic term for aircraft supported chiefly by their buoyancy in the air.
long-range radio navigation system means a navigation system which:
maintenance instruction means an instruction that is issued by:
but does not include an instruction issued by a manufacturer or designer if it is clear from the terms of the instruction that the manufacturer or designer regards compliance with the instruction as optional.maintenance release means a maintenance release in force under regulation 43.
maintenance schedule, in relation to a class B aircraft, means the maintenance schedule referred to in regulation 42A, 42B or 42C that applies to the aircraft.
major damage, in relation to an aircraft, means damage of such a kind that it may affect the safety of the aircraft or cause the aircraft to become a danger to person or property.
major defect, in relation to an aircraft, means a defect of such a kind that it may affect the safety of the aircraft or cause the aircraft to become a danger to person or property.
manned balloon means a balloon that is:
manufacturer's maintenance schedule, in relation to an aircraft, means a schedule issued by the manufacturer of the aircraft that sets out what maintenance should be carried out on the aircraft and when it should be carried out.
maximum landing weight, in relation to an aircraft, means the weight set out in the certificate of airworthiness of, or the flight manual for, the aircraft as the maximum landing weight.
maximum take-off weight, in relation to an aircraft, means the weight set out in the certificate of airworthiness of, or the flight manual for, the aircraft as the maximum take-off weight.
meteorological information means all classes of meteorological reports, analyses, forecasts, warnings, advices and revisions or amendments thereto which may be required in connection with the operation of air routes.
meteorological minima means the minimum values of meteorological elements as determined by CASA in respect of specified types of flight operation.
meteorological observation means the qualitative or quantitative evaluation by instrumental or visual means of one or more meteorological elements at a place at a given time.
meteorological observer means a person authorised by the Director of Meteorology to make or record meteorological observations or a person approved by CASA for that purpose.
meteorological report means a statement, presented in plain language or in code, either orally, in written form or by telecommunication, of past or present meteorological conditions at ground level or in the free air as observed from a given place.
mile means an International Nautical Mile, being 1,852 metres.
military aerodrome means an aerodrome under the control of any part of the Defence Force.
military aircraft means aircraft of any part of the Defence Force (including any aircraft that is being constructed for any part of the Defence Force), other than any aircraft that is registered under these regulations as an Australian aircraft.
moored, in relation to lighter-than-air aircraft, means the aircraft:
movement area, in relation to an aerodrome, has the same meaning as in subregulation 1.03 (1) of the Air Services Regulations.
navigation system, in relation to an aircraft, means a system by which the aircraft can be navigated.
night flight means flight during night.
Notices to Airmen or NOTAMS has the meaning given by regulation 4.12 of the Air Services Regulations.
operating crew means any person who:
(a) who are conducting flight tests; or
(b) who are conducting surveillance to ensure that the flight is conducted in accordance with these regulations; or
(c) who are in the aircraft for the purpose of:
(i) receiving flying training; or
(ii) practising for the issue of a flight crew licence.operational information service means a service for the provision of advice and information to assist in the safe and efficient conduct of flights, including the provision of advice and information at the request of a pilot in command of an aircraft.
operator means a person, organisation, or enterprise engaged in, or offering to engage in, an aircraft operation.
overseas authorisation means an authorisation (whether called an authority, licence, certificate, rating or endorsement, or some other name) that:
(b) that was issued by the responsible authority of a Contracting State.
(b) that was issued by the responsible authority of a Contracting State.
passenger means any person who is on board an aircraft other than a member of the operating crew.
permissible unserviceability, in relation to an aircraft, means a defect in, or damage to, the aircraft of a kind approved by CASA under regulation 37 as a permissible unserviceability in relation to the aircraft.
personal log book means the log book required by regulation 5.51.
pilot licence means:
positive position fix, in relation to an aircraft in flight, is the point on the surface of the earth vertically below the aircraft as established by:
private (aeroplane) pilot means the holder of a private pilot (aeroplane) licence.
private (gyroplane) pilot means the holder of a private pilot (gyroplane) licence.
private (helicopter) pilot means the holder of a private pilot (helicopter) licence.
private I.F.R. rating means a rating mentioned in paragraph 5.13 (ga).
private pilot certificate (balloons) means a certificate that is issued by the Australian Ballooning Federation Ltd.
private pilot licence means:
provisionally certificated aircraft means an aircraft for which a provisional certificate of airworthiness is in force.
publications means Aeronautical Information Publications or Visual Flight Guides published by the Aeronautical Information Service, and includes any amendments of those publications published by that Service from time to time.
public transport service means a service for the carriage of persons or cargo for hire or reward.
radiocommunication system means equipment that is capable of maintaining two-way voice communication through the aeronautical mobile radio service.
radio navigation aid means an installation on the ground that emits radio signals on specified frequencies.
radio navigation system means equipment carried on, or installed in, an aircraft for the purpose of navigating the aircraft by reference to the signals emitted by a radio navigation aid.
radiotelephonic language means:
with, or in relation to, an aircraft.recognised aeroplane means an aeroplane:
regular aerodrome means an aerodrome which is listed in the flight plan as an aerodrome of intended landing.
relevant airworthiness standards means:
Note For type certification basis and foreign type certificate see the Dictionary at the end of CASR.relevant NAA, for an aircraft manufactured in a foreign country, means the NAA of the country whose airworthiness standards make up the relevant airworthiness standards for the aircraft.
Note For NAA see the Dictionary at the end of CASR.reporting point means a specified geographical location in relation to which the position of an aircraft can be reported.
reserve time means a period during which a flight crew member is required by an operator to hold himself available for a tour of duty.
responsible authority, in relation to a Contracting State, means the authority that has responsibility for the licensing of persons to perform duties essential to the operation of civil aircraft in the State.
responsible organisation means:
restricted area means an area declared under regulation 2.07 of the Air Services Regulations to be a restricted area.
restricted flight engineer means the holder of a restricted flight engineer licence.
restricted flight engineer proficiency check means a check:
(b) approved for the purposes of regulation 217.
route sector means a route, or portion of a route, flown without an intermediate landing.
route segment means a route, or portion of a route, usually flown without an intermediate stop.
RVSM airspace means any of the following:
RVSM airworthiness approved aircraft means:
(b) a foreign aircraft for which an RVSM foreign airworthiness approval is in force.
RVSM operational approval has the meaning given by regulation 181E.
secondary surveillance radar transponder means equipment that:
(b) can respond to radio signals transmitted to the aircraft by ground radar and relay information about the aircraft's operations including the following:
signal area means a selected part of an aerodrome used for the display of ground signals so that they will be visible to aircraft in the air.
special pilot licence means a pilot licence issued under regulation 5.198.
specific subject means a subject for examination under these regulations, being a subject related to the maintenance of a particular type of aircraft, engine, electrical installation, instrument installation or radio system, declared by CASA, by notification published in Civil Aviation Orders, to be a specific subject for the purposes of these regulations.
sport aviation body means:
student flight engineer means the holder of a student flight engineer licence.
student pilot means the holder of a student pilot licence.
student pilot area limit, in relation to a flight undertaken by a student pilot, means:
synthetic flight trainer means a flight simulator, a flight training device, or a synthetic trainer.
Note 1 For
definitions of flight simulator and flight
training device, see the CASR Dictionary.
taxi speed means the speed at which an aeroplane manoeuvres on the surface of an aerodrome under its own power when it is neither taking-off nor landing.
Territory does not include the Northern Territory.
tethered, in relation to a lighter-than-air aircraft, means attached to the ground, or an object on the ground, by flexible restraints that limit the movement of the aircraft.
tethered flight time, in relation to a balloon, means any part of the flight time in the balloon during which the balloon is tethered.
the Act means the Civil Aviation Act 1988.
the Convention means the Chicago Convention.
the Director of Meteorology means the Director of Meteorology under the Meteorology Act 1955.
theory examination means an examination of a person's aeronautical knowledge set and conducted by CASA under subregulation 5.41 (1).
these regulations includes CASR.
has instructed must be retired or overhauled or removed from an aircraft within a particular period.tour of duty means a period from the time at which a flight crew member commences any duties associated with his employment before making a flight or series of flights until the time at which he is finally relieved of all such duties after the termination of the flight or flights, and includes a period during which a flight crew member is required by an operator to hold himself available at an aerodrome for the performance of any such duties.
track means the projection on the earth's surface of the path of an aircraft, the direction of which at any point is usually expressed in degrees from North (true or magnetic).
traffic advisory service means a service provided by air traffic control for the purpose of giving traffic information and advice, except traffic avoidance advice, to help a pilot avoid a collision.
traffic avoidance advice means advice provided by air traffic control specifying manoeuvres to help a pilot avoid a collision.
traffic information means information issued by air traffic control or Flight Service to alert the pilot of an aircraft to other aircraft that may be close to the position, or the intended route, of his or her aircraft, so as to help the pilot avoid a collision.
traffic pattern means the path over the ground of aircraft in flight in the vicinity of an aerodrome during the execution of take-offs and landings and their paths when manoeuvring on the manoeuvring area.
training flight engineer means a flight engineer employed by, or working under an arrangement with, an approved training and checking organisation to carry out training and supervision of flight engineers.
TSO followed by the letter `C' and a number means the Technical Standard Order so numbered issued by the Administrator of the FAA.
unlawful interference with aviation has the same meaning as in section 3AE of the Air Navigation Act 1920.
vertical plane, in relation to an aeroplane, means a plane perpendicular to the horizontal plane.
V.F.R. is the symbol used to designate the Visual Flight Rules prescribed in Part 12.
V.F.R. flight means a flight conducted in accordance with Visual Flight Rules prescribed in Part 12.
V.F.R. operation means an operation conducted under Visual Flight Rules prescribed in Part 12.
visibility means the ability, as determined by atmospheric conditions and expressed in units of distance, to see and identify prominent unlighted objects by day and prominent lighted objects by night.
V.M.C. is the symbol used to denote meteorological conditions in which the flight visibility and distances from cloud during a flight are equal to, or greater than, the applicable distances determined by the Authority under subregulation 172 (2).
rule means a rule prescribed by a regulation contained in that Division or those Parts and the rules has a corresponding meaning.
visible, in relation to lights, means visible on a dark night with a clear atmosphere.
as the case requires.